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However, a very large population is exposed and some trace elements 14 produced by combustion tend to concentrate on the surface of fine particulates. In addition trace elements may catalyze atmospheric reactions. Protech PPC-8120A Audio of trace element emissions should continue. Scrubber efficiencies should be determined for vapor phase trace elements and POM.

Efforts should initially be concentrated on the residential sector as Protech PPC-8120A Audio sector produces most of the organics and may pro- duce large amounts of Coal combustion should receive major attention for POM. Oil combustion may contribute relatively high amounts of and sulfuric acid due to the presence of vanadium catalysts.

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Efforts should also concentrate on coal combustion. Information in these areas has been difficult to obtain. Federal Power Commission data have been useful for the electric utility sector, but the data should be subjected to further analysis. Data on the practices of the in- dustrial sector are particularly poor and should be improved. The National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit System should be examined in detail as a Protech PPC-8120A Audio source of addi- tional information on both electric utility and industrial practices. State agencies may also be able to provide detailed data. Control methods should also be investigated.

In addition, although the amount of ash from residual oil is very small, the amount and composition Protech PPC-8120A Audio be investigated as no data are presently available. Control measures, such as pond liners and stabilizers, should also be investigated. While these Protech PPC-8120A Audio may be found by referring to the Table of Contents, access to this data may be more readily obtained by the use of Table 6, Directory Of Major Tables Of Emissions.


For the most part, the data presented in the summary emission tables deal with national averages or ranges based on the best available information. While national figures cannot be related to individual plants, they do indicate the relative importance of various emission streams. The dis- cussion accompanying the tables presents information on emissions, a review 16 Table 6. This report first presents, in Section II, a description of Protech PPC-8120A Audio from the electric utility industry. The population of boilers in this classification is presented as a function of boiler size, firing method, and boiler Protech PPC-8120A Audio.

Protech PPC-8120A Audio Section II also presents a detailed dis- cussion of the unit operations and processes associated with emissions and provides estimates of emissions from these processes in the form of summary tables with attendant discussions. The discussions in these sections follow the same format used for the electric utility industry in Section II. Large industrial boilers are very similar to utility boilers, but certain unit operations are not applicable to the smaller combustion sources. In addition, these smaller sources generally do not employ waste treatment and emission control devices. Section VI discusses trends in fuel consumption and boiler design and their anticipated effect on emissions.

Finally, Section VII reviews on-going or planned activities associated with combustion sources and their pollutant streams. This information was developed from three principal sources: This breakdown will help to define the potential air, water, and solid waste emissions by Protech PPC-8120A Audio and combus- tion category. Situations where data are missing or of questionable value have been noted. A ranking scheme has been devised to indicate the quality of existing data from various emission streams.

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Finally, major government contractors have been utilized. In our survey of available literature we have been assisted by the many individuals and associations enumerated above and by the use of literature searches conducted by such organizations as the National Technical Information Service and the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange Service. As anticipated, most of the pertinent literature concerning emissions emanates from the Environmental Protection Agency and other government agencies, although the larger industrial and trade organizations have also sponsored ir- -estigations of direct relevance to combustion system emissions. Other data sources, the Protech PPC-8120A Audio Boiler Manufacturers Association, Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Census identify sales and fuel consumption figures which have proven to be useful in appraising practices in the nonutility area.

Again, other industrial organizations, largely under EPA sponsorship, have analyzed the available data, and their contributions were useful in the compila- tion of this document. The major data sources which were used in the preparation of this report are discussed below.


The report entitled, Steam-Electric Plant Air and Water Quality Control Data for the Year Ended December 31,published by the FPC in Marchcontains summary data on such sub- jects as fuel consumption, fuel quality, emissions, ash and sulfur collec- tion and disposal, types of cooling, cooling water use, and chemical addi- tive use water. The primary limitation of the summary document is the lack of individual boiler data. These forms see Protech PPC-8120A Audio A were collected from individual electric generating plants throughout the United States whose cumulative fuel consumption was 97 percent of all combustion fuels used for electric generation.

Although the information represents the best utility data available, errors exist in the tape, reflecting the inherent 20 human error in both filling out the FPC Form Protech PPC-8120A Audio by the many utility personnel involved, and in translating this information to the magnetic tape. Time did not permit a more detailed examination of the tape and possible resolution of discrepancies. In general, it is felt that the information obtained from the FPC represents an accurate portrayal of the utility industry. Fuel consumption data for utilities were updated through information available from the FPC and the Bureau of Mines. Data for individual plants in this file include boiler capacity and type, fuel characteristics and consumption, control equipment type and efficiency, stack parameters and emission estimates.

The data are presented for different years from throughdepending on the state, but most data are from or The NEDS system is designed to include data on essentially all the significant oil- coal- and natural gas-fired electric generation units, especially sources with the potential to emit over tons per year of any of the criteria pollutants. very sound, our projects are fully fund- and unnecessary burdens and protec- from CRITFC and PPC, regional governors None of the funds made available by this Act may be used to provide arms, train.


B____. C____. ***. ***. priate in the absence of Protech PPC-8120A Audio documen tation for ed as Petitioner's PPC Gas Rate Sched ule No. . in the public interest and for the protec.

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